Anime is Culture: Pulling the Trigger on Peace

 

Hey there everyone, sorry for the recent lack of articles.  My class fell behind on the syllabus, and we just got done reorganizing ourselves and getting back on track.  Anyways, Lancen here with another article on anime and its reflection of Japanese culture.  This time, I’ll be talking about anime/manga and its relationship to violence.

In my latest class on anime, we were assigned to watch the film Momotaro’s Divine Sea Warriors.  For those who don’t know, this movie is one of several in a series that were produced during World War II.  The movie features cute animals, reminiscent of Disney characters, going off to battle to fight against the devils in the West.  Just like in the original Japanese fairy tale.  Except the ones heading off to battle are dressed in Japanese military uniforms, parachuting out of planes, using WWII-era guns, rushing tanks to stab the drivers with their bayonets, and ultimately forcing the devils to surrender.

Just from this description, one can see that this movie was a propaganda piece made to motivate the Japanese to join the army and fight for Japan’s victory in the war.  However, there’s more to this than just having a story of victory for Momotaro, Japan’s hero.

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This cute rabbit is ready to unleash hell in Momotaro’s Divine Sea Warriors.  Notice the amount of detail put into his surroundings despite the obvious cutesy character.

The film’s animation demonstrates incredible attention to detail.  Whether it’s the facial expressions of the characters, or the weapons they use, the detail put into them is very realistic, especially with the animation technology they had at that time.

Why go through such incredible effort for the sake of a “children’s” movie? This is where the term “hyper-realism” comes in.  Hyper-realism is when the simulation — anime in this case — feels more real than actual reality.  The attention to detail draws the viewer in and makes them “feel” the reality.  In the case of Momotaro, making the “victory” as real as possible was one way to instill nationalism in its viewers and stoke the fires of the wartime spirit.

Even after the Japanese defeat in WWII, this use of violence in animation to stoke the audience’s spirit did not wane after the war. It just turned in a different direction.  Instead of war, violence is used to promote peace.

How is violence supposed to bring about peace?  Once again, hyper-realism plays a key role.  An example of this was our assigned reading of volume 1 of Barefoot Gen.  Barefoot Gen is an autobiographical manga created by the late Keiji Nakazawa, one of manga’s most influential creators and a survivor of the A-bomb strike on Hiroshima.  In this manga, there are gruesome depictions of wartime Japan: starving children, the atrocities the Japanese military inflicted on the Chinese and Koreans, and of course the terrifying effects of the atomic bomb, both from the initial blast and the effects on the survivors.

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Nakagawa didn’t pull his punches when he wanted to show the effects of the A-Bomb in Barefoot Gen.  Keep in mind that this manga is required reading in many Japanese elementary schools.

If you look at the images from the manga and your stomach turns, then Nakagawa’s manga is affecting you in the way it was intended to.  His use of graphic violence and gore makes it all feel very real, despite being a manga aimed at young children.

The realism of the terrible effects of war makes people want to avoid it as much as possible.  The reader is drawn into the hell that Nakagawa saw that day, and it sends a powerful message.

In America, it is the norm to avoid showing children violent programs or materials until we deem them old enough to handle/understand it.  However, Japan’s incredibly strong stance on peace and pacifism encourages exposing the horrors of violence and war to children at a young age.  According to my professor, Barefoot Gen is required reading in many Japanese primary schools.  Instead of “the children aren’t ready for this,” it’s “This is what happens when you wage war.  This is why we have to promote peace.”

A quick aside from Jason: First off, hi, remember me? I’m still around! Just been busy with some unexpected things, that’s all. Anyway, I just wanted to let you all know that if you want to read more about Barefoot Gen, you can take a look at this reflection that I posted back in 2015, or the related Manga Movable Feast archive, or even the Google Books archive of the profile I wrote in The Rough Guide to Manga. OK, back to you, Lancen.

Have you ever noticed that in many anime, especially more popular ones, killing another person is usually a last resort?  This reflects the changed mentality of the Japanese.

A good example is Vash the Stampede from the famous anime, Trigun.  Despite being one of the best gunslingers in the world, he never shoots to kill, even if that would get him out of a sticky situation much more quickly and effectively.  When he is forced to kill, it shakes him down to his very core, and there is an entire episode dedicated to him trying to cope with it.

After the Allied victory in World War II, the American occupation pushed for the Japanese government to restructure itself, changing from an imperial system to a democratic one.

Included in this change was the ratification of Article 9 in the new Japanese Constitution.  This article declared that Japan would give up the right to wage war and have a standing military.  This would result in the Japanese pro-peace mentality that we see today.  They dislike having military bases in their country, as they see it as them being accessories to war in Asia.

This feeling was especially strong during the Korean and Vietnam wars, where protests broke out against the establishment of U.S. bases.  The U.S. keeps its bases there to deter its rival in the East with a show of strength.  However, Japan’s policy of peace speaks the opposite.  If you have no need for weapons, then neither does your enemy.  Instead of countries fighting one another, let’s work together towards peace.

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Why should countries fight each other when they can work together?  Strike Witches is a good representation of this mentality as the Joint Fighter Wing, comprised of girls from various nations from around the world, work together to fight the Neuroi; a dark, alien lifeform that disturbs the peace the world has enjoyed.

What do you think, especially in light of recent events?  Would the Japanese approach to peace work in the West?  Is it too idealistic?

Anime is Culture: What’s the deal with fan service?

[WARNING: SOME IMAGES MAY CONTAIN MILD NUDITY AND SEXUAL THEMES.  VIEWER DISCRETION IS ADVISED]

Hello everyone, I’m back.  It’s been a little over a week since I returned from Japan, and I’ve had to hit the ground running since I missed the first week of the Spring Semester during the trip (IT WAS TOTALLY WORTH IT THOUGH).  As I’ve been grinding my way through catching up with homework, I thought of something interesting: Why not take what I learn in my anime class (yes, there’s an actual anime class that exists), and share a little bit of it with you readers? The first topic I thought would be interesting was the topic of “fan service.”

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A poster of Matsuura Kanan from Love Live! Sunshine!! in Dengeki G’s magazine.

What is fan service?  To readers who may not be familiar with the term, “fan service” is the practice of adding elements that attract viewers and keep them watching/reading.  What many people in the West think of as just blatant perversion is actually a production and marketing strategy used in the hyper-competitive and capitalistic manga/anime market.

I’m sure most of you have heard the line “Sex sells” before, and Japan’s popular manga and anime market has taken it to heart.  To understand this, one has to understand the way manga works and how it differs from the Western concept of comics.  The reason I am using manga in this comparison is that many anime are derived from manga, and therefore a lot of the same techniques used in the marketing of the original manga get used by the anime side of the industry.

Unlike Western comics, which are published primarily monthly, all popular manga are published weekly.  It doesn’t matter if you’re a beginner trying to break into the game, or if you’re a seasoned veteran.  If you are a beginner, to get your start, you would have to send your manga to companies to be published in a collection among numerous other new artists’ works.  These collections are sold in cheap books that are meant to be thrown away after reading.

These collections of new manga artist works all have surveys at the end asking readers to give their opinions on which artists’ manga they enjoyed.  If the company sees that people like your manga, they will offer to put your manga in one of their more mainstream publications.  You have one week to send in your next chapter.  If that week’s publication gains traction, then you get another week from the company.  The process will continue until you quit, or the audience loses interest.  If your audience starts waning, the company will ask you to end your manga, and you’ll be kicked out of the lineup.

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Manga artists never get a break.  Especially when they’re trying to break into the mainstream. (image from Bakuman by Tsugumi Ohba and Takeshi Obata)

How do you stay in the game?  With a good story?  That’s impossible with only 25 pages a week, with people looking at your pages for only 4 seconds each, and with your manga just one of thousands of other hopefuls.

That’s where fan service comes in.  It’s not a far-fetched notion to say that the first thing a person will notice is an attractive image of a character, whether it be a man or woman.  If you can catch the eyes of readers with a girl in a swimsuit, or a guy with his shirt off and muscles glistening, you can increase your chances of being noticed by a small margin.

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Fan service isn’t limited to girls in revealing outfits!  Even men are presented in such ways to keep the female fanbase coming back for more!
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Fan service is mainstream in Japan.  This is an advertisement for the new TV anime for the manga series, Citrus.  Sometimes fan service isn’t what’s blatant, but what’s implied.

In a market where everyone thinks the same way, and wants the same thing, you have to be the one that stands out the most, which leads to the generous amount of “fan service” given in manga.  It can be seen as lecherous in nature, but the reasoning behind it is almost strictly for business purposes.  Fan service can lead to getting noticed.  Getting noticed can lead to becoming popular and mainstream.  If you can make it to the mainstream, the more fan service your manga has, the more ways it can be marketed in spinoff products like figures, posters, and other character goods.  Good fan service leads to the establishment of strong anime/manga franchises.

In the end, manga is not a niche industry like its Western comic counterpart.  It’s a mainstream, hyper-competitive industry in Japan, and fan service is just one of the ways to hopefully get yourself noticed, and HOPEFULLY that gets your foot in the door.

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Even a manga as dark and serious as Death Note needed to employ some sort of fan service!

I hope you all enjoyed this little tidbit from my anime class, and I hope you learned something that you didn’t know before.  Fan service plays upon people’s desires, but it’s not perversion or sexualization for sexualization’s sake.  It’s a survival mechanic.  The Japanese market is drastically different from the Western market regarding things like comics and manga, and I hope I could shed a little light on that.

If you’re interested in more content like this, please leave a comment and let me know.  I sincerely enjoy writing about the things I learn in class.

 

Day 7: Forests, Fashion Districts, and Farewells

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Hello everyone, sorry this one took so long to get out.  I’ve been home for about three days now, and the jet lag has just destroyed my sleep schedule and energy levels.

Anyway! Our final day in Japan was just as exciting and energy-filled as the others.  Our first stop was the Meiji-Jingu Shrine just outside the famous Harajuku district.  The shrine is surrounded by a massive forest, which makes it stand in contrast to the concrete jungle around it.  Upon entering the forest, almost all sounds of the city are drowned out by the numerous trees and the crunching of gravel beneath your feet.  The entire area was so serene and calming, it was hard to believe that the entire forest surrounding the shrine was completely man-made.

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At the center of the forest, the main shrine building stands in quiet splendor.  Its simple, yet elegant design brings an instant feeling of peace as visitors wash their hands and mouths to purify themselves before entering.  The inside is simple, yet beautiful.  There is an open courtyard, giving the area a huge sense of space.  The walls are lined with hundreds of letters written by young Japanese students, detailing their wishes for the new year.

The main shrine stands at the back of the grounds.  According to the Japanese, the soul of Emperor Meiji resides there, as the shrine and forest were built in his honor.

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After visiting the shrine, we were unleashed upon the Harajuku district right next door.  For those who don’t know, Harajuku is Tokyo’s renowned fashion district.  Brand-name cosmetics and clothing can be found here.  There are some particularly special brands or designer clothes that are hard to find, that can be bought here.  I bought some perfume for my mom, and she liked it a lot.

The main street is full of more mainstream brands, but the side streets are where the cool stuff can be found.  There was a store dedicated entirely to condoms.  It was so blatant, it was hilarious.  There was also an owl cafe.  As an owl fan from Hawaii, I would never have an opportunity to interact with owls, so I jumped at the chance while I could.  It was a guilty sort of pleasure, as I felt bad for the owls, being cooped up indoors.

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After Harajuku, it was time to say farewell to everyone, as we were bused to the airport.  This trip has been a real blessing to me, and I’m glad to know that if I had chosen a different career path last year, I never would have had this opportunity.

I met so many people, went to so many places, and learned so many things.  The week went by so quickly, and there were so many more things I wished I could see and do.  Hey, at least that gives me more than enough reasons to go back soon, right?

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As this small series of posts comes to a close, I find myself pondering.  How will I use these experiences to improve my life even more?  How can I share this feeling of wonder and joy with others?  How can I convince more people to go to Japan?  How do I get more people more interested in learning about this incredible country, it culture, and its people?  Well, I have a few ideas, but you’ll have to wait and see.  😉

But what will I possibly write after finishing this series of journal posts?  While I won’t be posting any amazing adventure posts for a while, I’ll finally be able to touch on other topics I’ve always wanted to write about.  Anime news, my opinions on current events in the otaku world, highlighting local otaku creators, etc.  There’s a plethora of other things for me to write about.  I just hope that you readers will be interested.

Lastly, I just wanted to thank all you readers for your support over the past week.  It has been a real pleasure to share my experiences with you, and I ask for your continued readership as I work to improve myself while on this internship.

Look forward to it!

Day 6: Finishing Up

It’s very late and I’m very tired, so this will be a short post.  Today was our last full day in Japan, and what a long day it was.  We woke up early to get on the Shinkansen back to Tokyo.  The Nozomi line got us back in no time.

After arriving, we were hurried onto the bus and taken to the Prime Minister’s residence.  There, we made a courtesy call to to the Japanese Cabinet Secretary.  I was pretty nervous as there were TV cameras filming us, and we were in a high-security building.  As such, we were prohibited from taking pictures.

After the courtesy call, we were bused to another hall, where we met, once again, with Hideaki Yamaji, senior coordinator for the North American Affairs Division.  This time, we were the ones addressing him, as our group presented our action plans for disseminating out experiences and lessons learned from this trip once we return to our respective homes.  We all made a commitment to make efforts to increase interest in visiting and exchanging with Japan to our fellow students, and within our home communities.  This could be through Facebook, Instagram, and even blogs like this one!  Once again, we were not allowed to take pictures as this was an official government function.

After our presentations, we were released to explore Tokyo.  This time, we were released a good deal earlier so we could really go out and see the sights.

This was my chance to visit the Mecca of anime, Akihabara.  To get there, I had to learn how to use the train system.  Thankfully, our group of Akiba pilgrims had a guide.  Our friend Marvin has taken the trains to Akihabara a few times before, and he was more than willing to teach us how to use them and guide us.

The regular metro system was incredibly quick and efficient.  We boarded during the end of the workday rush hour, so I got to experience being packed into the crowded train car.

We arrived in Akihabara in about 15 minutes, and I was greeted with a sensory overload.  The city was lit up with signs displaying various anime and game series.  There were J-Pop and anime songs being blasted on speakers in front of multiple stores.  The arcades were boisterous and loud as players tried their hand at crane games.  It was everything I had imagined and more.

It’s one thing to see it in pictures, but I had to go there to really feel it.  We only had an hour and a half there, so I didn’t get to see much, but I definitely enjoyed myself.  I HAVE to come back now that I know where things are.  Hopefully that day will come soon.

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We’d have been lost if it wasn’t for Marvin!

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Even if the sky is dark, the city is still so bright!
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Had to react quickly to catch these Mario Kart-ers!
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The famous stairs featured in the idol anime, Love Live!  As a huge fan of the franchise, I was so happy to be able to run up these stairs just like in the anime.

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If I had more time, I would’ve entered the Owl cafe.

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I’m now back in the hotel, repacking my luggage and prepping for the flight home tomorrow.  I’ll miss the friends I made on this trip, but through the power of the internet, it won’t be hard to stay connected.

Day 5: Into the Woods

Today we said goodbye to the families that ran the minshuku Japanese-style inns.  We only knew them for a single night, but I felt so comfortable and welcome, as if I had been there for weeks.  We were treated to a Japanese breakfast in the morning, along with an impressive blanket of snow from the night before.  The landscape was absolutely gorgeous.

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The wife of the Yoshinoya Family Head.  Can you believe Obaa-san is 104 years old?
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Snowman!
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Yoshinoya no Ojii-san and Obaa-san.

Our experience with the landscape would only grow as we made our way from the minshuku, deep into the Kutsuki Forest.  The forest is filled with indigenous plants and animals, though most of them are hidden away until the spring comes.  We were brought to the visitors’ center in the middle of the woods, where we were split into 2 different groups.  One group would go out for a guided tour of the grounds, while the other would stay inside the center and make their own pairs of chopsticks.

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This tree was planted by the groundskeeper 30 years ago.
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Nina and I just had to make snow angels!

My group took the forest walk first.  The snow had piled up into a good 5-inch blanket, but that didn’t deter us from walking around.  Our guide showed us around the grounds, which used to be rice paddies before the forest reclaimed it.  The area is a popular area for campers during the warmer months.

On the other side of the grounds, an international garden of trees stood.  The groundskeeper said he goes to the city every year to find new trees to plant.  He has been working in the forest for more than 30 years!  Most of the trees on the grounds were planted by him.

After our walk, we returned to the visitors’ center and swapped places with the other group.  In the main hall, we were given sticks of Japanese Cypress to make our own chopsticks (o-hashi) out of.

Using a wooden apparatus, we shaved away at the sticks until our chopsticks formed.  After this, we sanded them until they were smooth, then wrote on them with soldering irons.

To finish the process, the sticks were covered in a coat of sesame oil to prevent moisture from getting soaked into the wood.  We’ll have to reapply oil to the wood every 2 weeks or so for maximum life expectancy.

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We got to keep the shavings too.  Apparently, the Japanese Cypress’ wood is good for its aroma as well.

After Kutsuki Forest, we bid farewell to the groundskeepers and staff, then hopped on the bus back to Kyoto.  There we’ll be prepping our presentations for the Japanese Ministry to share our findings and our action plans moving forward after the program ends and we return home.

Tomorrow is our last full day here.  Here’s to making the most of it!

Day 4: Making Manga and Memories

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Today’s adventure took our group to the famous Kyoto Manga Museum.  It was just a quick 5-minute walk from our hotel!  This museum houses the world’s largest collection of manga, dating all the way back to the ’60s, with some dating even further back.  Established in 2006, this museum was built in an old elementary school that had been closed down after the area around it slowly turned into a business district.

There, we got treated to a small lesson on how manga assistants work learning how to color in hair, draw motion lines, and add lines to evoke certain emotions from different panels.  As with the other museums, we were not allowed to take pictures of the museum in order to preserve the atmosphere and value of the museum.

I highly recommend that you try and take a trip here if you haven’t already.  There were so many more exhibits I wish I could have looked at longer, but we were on a tight schedule.

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After our visit to the Manga Museum, and lunch, our group packed up on the bus and began our two-and-a-half hour bus ride from Kyoto to Shiga prefecture.  Along the way, we took a brief rest stop at Shirahige Shrine, along the shore of Lake Biwa.  A short distance offshore, on of the shrines old gates stands in silent vigil as a testament to how large the shrine had once been.  The large red gate was a magnificent sight to behold, standing on top of the glassy surface of the lake.

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Proceeding from the shrine, we finally made it to our destination, a quiet little minshuku, or Japanese family-run inn.  Our group was divided among 3 different inns.  Our group went to the inn run by the Yoshinoya family.

I cannot begin to describe how great I feel in this place.  The atmosphere is just so relaxing and homey, all the way out here in the countryside.  We were treated to a very fulfilling meal of sukiyaki, followed by a calligraphy lesson from the family head.

After, our group of guys all broke the barriers big time as we shared the community bath.  It was most of our first time experiencing bathing with our peers, but we were all pretty cool about it as we talked about life, school, anime conventions, etc.

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Now we’re all relaxing as we continue soaking in the atmosphere.  The agenda for tomorrow is a trip into the nearby Kutsuki Forest, then preparing our presentations for when we return to Tokyo.  There, we’ll be presenting our findings, as well as our steps moving forward, to the Chief Secretary of the Cabinet Secretary.  What is our take on the “Beauty of Japan?”  What will we do to spread the knowledge of this beauty?  I’ll keep you posted.

By the way, it’s snowing here in Shiga, and I am absolutely ecstatic.  It’s my first time experiencing snowfall and actually getting to hold snow in my hand!  This trip has just been fantastic.

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Day 3: History and Culture

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We started the day with an early visit to the famous Fushimi Inari Taisha Shrine on the Southern outskirts of Kyoto.  This shrine is famous for the thousands of red gates that line the path up to the summit of Mount Inari.  Unfortunately, we did not have enough time to make the entire trek to the top, but it definitely gives me a valid excuse to come back to Japan (as if I didn’t already have enough).

Words are a poor way to explain the beauty of this place (and I’m also pretty exhausted tonight), so here are some pictures of the parts of the trail I traveled.

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After our visit to Fushimi Inari, we packed up on the bus and traveled to the northern end of Kyoto.  Nestled at the base of Mount Hiei sits the campus of Kyoto Seika University, known for its concentration on the creative arts.  There, we were met by humanities professor Rebecca Jennison.

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She introduced us to some of the students of the university with whom we briefly exchanged interests and questions.  Our group was met by Natsuki Jiku, a foreign exchange student from China who is studying animation at the university.  She’s a big anime fan and instantly clicked with our group.  She’s a big fan of Love Live and is even part of the university’s school idol club!

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Natsuki is on the far right.

After we talked to the university students, Ken Rodgers, head of the International Education Office, gave a brief presentation about the history of the university and Kyoto itself.  The university was established in the 1960s, during a time of civil unrest among the nation’s students.  While protests were being held in Tokyo, the students in Kyoto instead established a new teaching system that would eventually become the university as it is today.  Their philosophy was to focus on international exchange and education, developing students’ interests and skills from the ground up, and keeping classes small to allow for more teacher/student interaction.

The university has many programs that deal with the creative media.  Some of the most popular and well-known ones are the manga and animation programs.  Many of the students graduate to become part of big-name anime studios, including local studio Kyoto Animation (KyoAni).

After his lecture, Prof. Rodgers gave us a quick tour of the campus.  The buildings were all designed by alumni architecture students and teachers.  Once again, it’s hard to explain the sight of these works of art, so I’ll use pictures to hopefully show you just how skillful and awe-inspiring this campus visit was to me.  All pictures are collections of student and alumni-produced works (yes, even the buildings!).

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Tomorrow, we’ll be visiting the Kyoto Manga Museum and then heading to Shiga Prefecture, where we’ll be staying in a traditional Japanese inn!  I heard that there’s a good chance there will be snow!  It’ll be my first time touching actual snow, so I’m definitely looking forward to it.  I hope you will as well!